Characteristics and Forms in Translation
In simple terms, Translation is a reproduction of a text into another language without changing the actual meaning of the message. Most of the people take translation as a process of conveying the thoughts and messages from a source language to a target language, in the form of spoken or written. But it may differ depending on the kind of translation, depending on the characteristics and forms.
The translation can be distinguished in terms of linguistics as mentioned below;
- Intra-lingual Translation: The translation that has been made within the same Language.
- Inter-lingual Translation: The translation made from one to another language.
- Inter-semiotic Translation: The translation from non-verbal to verbal signs, e.g. Image or music.
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Translation Category and Terms
Another differentiation of the translation kind may be as the word to word translation, literal translation, free translation, dynamic translation, aesthetic-poetic translation, pragmatic translation, linguistic translation, semantic translation, communicative translation and ethnographic translation. All these are known as the general categories of translation, however, the Translation Industry is continuously evolving and there are certain terms that can fall into the category of Special translation. These terms are briefly described below;
- Administrative Translation: The translation of the administrative text refers to the text that is used in the day to day management within organizations and businesses.
- Commercial Translation: It is commonly known as Professional Business Translation, it covers all sorts of documents that are used in the business world, for example, company accounts, correspondence, reports, tender documents etc. This type of translation requires specialized knowledge of the business terminologies.
- Computer Translation: The translation of computer software, help files, manuals, and applications etc is known as a computer translation. The term may not be confused with the Computer Assisted Translation (CAT tool), as it is just an application for translation.
- Economic Translation: It is specified in the field of economics just like business translation, Economic translation tends to be more academic in nature than other types of translations.
- Financial Translation: The financial translation covers the text relating to banking, asset management, stocks or bonds etc.,
- General Translation: It is the simplest of all as the general language in the text is considered as in the layman’s terms and not any technical or specific terminologies are used in it. Most of the translations are carried out in this type of translation.
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- Legal Translation: The translation of the legal documents like contracts, statutes and treaties is known as legal translation. It is the trickiest type of translation as it requires specialist attention because of its dependence on culture. There is no margin of error in this type of translation because any mistranslation of a statement may have a disastrous consequence.
- Literary Translation: The translation of literature such as poems, novels and plays, is called literary translation. In this category, one must be capable of translating the cultural nuances, the feelings and the subtle elements of the literature work.
- Medical Translation: It covers the medical field, including the medical equipment, medical books, manuals and packaging of medicine. It can also be crucial and leaves no room for any mistakes.
- Technical Translation: It is a broader term of translation that includes manufacturing and IT field, including the instructions and manuals. It includes more terminologies in the text.
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